A STYLISTIC STUDY OF ANTITHETICAL PARALLELISM IN THE QUR’ĀN
The language and style of the Qur’ān is a unique, wondrous and inimitable linguistic compendium. It is replete with remarkable and grandiose styles and expressions. Parallelism, and its various sub-types, constitutes a generously employed communicative and rhetorical linguistic expression in the Qur’ān. This paper investigated grammatical antithetical parallelisms in the Qur’ān with a view to demonstrating how they function to establish meaning connection. Twenty-one samples were taken from the Qur’ān and analysed using SPCA syntactic model of Systemic Functional Linguistics. Findings revealed that parallelisms in the Qur’ān are knitted in two main clauses (compound sentences), complex and compound-complex sentences yoked together in equivalent structures to express diverse themes such as belief versus disbelief, reward versus punishment, uprightness versus evil, monotheism versus polytheism, attributes, qualities and descriptions of Allah, etc. The finding also revealed that the parallel structures are constructed in the simple present tense, producing meaning connection that expresses the themes of universal truth, scientific facts and legislative components in Islam that entrench communal harmony and peaceful co-existence. In conclusion, the paper highlights the rhetorical appeal that is conveyed by these parallel structures.
Keywords: stylistics, Qur’ān, parallelism, rhetorical appeal
Abed, A. K. (2021) Parallelism in William Wordsworth’s selected short poem. Education College Journal. 1 (2). 626-645. Retrieved from https://www.iasj.net/iasj/download/7921f95354682054
Abdul-Raof, H. (2018). New horizon in Qur’ānic linguistics: A syntactic, semantic and stylistic analysis. London & New York: Routledge.
Alharbi, M. (2021). Linguistic appropriateness in the Qur’ān. Journal of the College of Arts and Humanities, Taibah University, Medina, Saudi Arabia. Retrieved from file:///C:/Users/HP%20PC/Downloads/Linguistic%20Appropriateness%20in%20the%20Quranic%20Text.%20Dr%20Mohammad%20Alharbi%20(1).pdf
Ali, M. M. (2002) The holy Qur’ān : Arabic text with English translation and commentary. Ohio: Ahmadiyya Anjuman Isha’at Islam Lahore inc
Aliyu, K. T. (2021). A stylistic analysis of G’ebinyo Ogbowei’s marsh boy and other poems. (Unpublished M. A. Dissertation). Department of Languages (English Unit), Al-Hikamh University, Ilorin, Nigeria.
Corbett, E. P. J. (1971) Classical rhetoric for the modern students. (2 edn). New York: Oxford University Press.
Crystal, D. (2004). The Cambridge encyclopedia of English Language. (2 edn.). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Dror, Y. (2017). Grammatical parallelism in the Qur’ān. Archiv Oreintalni. 85(2). 165-189. Retrieved from https://d1wqtxts1xzle7.cloudfront.net/55021166/Grammatical_Parallelism-libre.pdf?1510818359=&response-content-disposition=inline%3B+filename%3DGrammatical_Parallelism_in_the_Qur_an.pdf&Expires=1677598646&Signature=LQFioYpalrYHkaLYsVYZsVo3FIKOe732mrg8j8V3e3WE1fjBn1fdurJZ66ZK5CsxrQrlVID7b~FV3oQmQRXf8Vl8ctIMXISDmGAYovwtBo16qiy7GARYenWU4ro1S~h42N~ISq5PASWlssNOE5nhiDINmqU87TQu7t7SNSAZvbDtzrEks76JoV8t4S8jS1MxDk2R5A~7qUNgzsSx0RS4Xhrk-WyLZYvXXr7EMXq2~pqdZcNWQgvkFryrvikC148GlfDoNCgvb3repa8jFxwGHddEyPePdhTpFRUZUI7KTs1~p852B9n-WI1~tzb9unRaC4FxKUBWB9nizk5b86nr~A__&Key-Pair-Id=APKAJLOHF5GGSLRBV4ZA
El-Awa, S. M. S. (2006). Textual relation in the Qur’ān: Relevance, coherence and structure. London & New York: Routledge.
Hall, J. (1970). The Arab civilization. Lagos: Islamic Publication Bureau
Hitti. P. K. (2002). The history of the Arabs. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.
Jeffries, L. & McIntyre, D. (2010) Stylistics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press
Leech, G. N. (1969). A linguistic guide to English poetry. London: Oxford University Press.
Leech, G. N. (2008). Language in literature: style and foregrounding. New York: Routledge.
Leech, G. N. & Short, M. H. (2007). Style in fiction: A linguistic introduction to English functional prose. (2nd edn). London: Longman Group
Mahdi, S. and Kadhim, B. (2018). Parallelism in selected short chapters of the Holy Qur’ān. Islamic University College Journal. 50 (2). 1-14. Retrieved from https://www.iasj.net/iasj/article/156933
Maledo, R. O. (2019). Syntactic parallelism and meaning relation in Tanure Ojaide’s poetry. Kampala International University Journal of Humanities. 4 (4). 215-227 Retrieved from https://www.ijhumas.com/ojs/index.php/kiuhums/article/view/659/608
Ogunsiji, A. and Aluya, I. (2022). Lexical repetition and syntactic parallelism in selected political essays of Niyi Osundare and Ray Epku. Journal of Universal Language. 23 (1). 77-107. Retrieved from https://www.sejongjul.org/archive/view_article?pid=jul-23-1-77
Ojaide, T. (1996). Poetic imagination in black Africa. North Carolina: Carolina Academic Press
Okunowo, Y. (2012). Patterns of parallelism in as trope of meaning in Osundare’s poetry. Academic Research International. 2(2). 715- 723. Retrieved from http://www.savap.org.pk/journals/ARInt./Vol.2(2)/2012(2.2-78).pdf
Phillip, A. B. (2005). The methodology of Qur’ānic Interpretation. Riyadh: International Islamic Publishing House.
Quirk, R., Greenbaum, S., Leech, G., and Svartvik, J. (1985). A comprehensive grammar of English Language. London: Longman.
Saeh, B. (2015). The miraculous language of the Qur’ān: Evidence of divine origin. London: International Institute of Islamic Thought.
Short, M. (1996) Exploring the language of poems, plays and prose. London: Pearson Education
Simpson, P. (2004) Stylistics: A resource book for students. London & New York: Routledge.
Ushama, T. (2013). History and science of the Qur’ān. Kuala Lampur: International Islamic University of Malaysia.
von Denffer, A. (1981) An introduction to sciences of the Qur’ān. Leicester
Wales, K. (2001). A dictionary of stylistics. (2 edn). London: Pearson Education.
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.
Authors are free to:
- Share — copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format
- Adapt — remix, transform, and build upon the material
- for any purpose, even commercially.