Interactive Functions of Kaně (کنه) in Ordinary Pashto Conversation

  • Sultan Muhammad Assistant Professor, Department of English, Hazara University, Mansehra
  • Salma Khatoon, Dr. Lecturer, Department of English, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat
  • Ayesha Sohail, Dr. Professor, Department of English, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzzafarabad

Abstract

In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in the analysis of various linguistic and interactional devices that speakers use during ordinary conversation. Few studies have explored interactional devices used during ordinary conversation by speakers of Urdu and other local languages in Pakistan, except Pashto. This paper presents the results of the study that explored different interactive functions of kaně (کنه) in ordinary Pashto conversation. It shows that kaně has different functions and meanings in different contexts. It argues that it is not the position of kaně in the Turn-Constructional Unit (TCU) that contributes to its different functions but the kind of sequential environment or the specific context in which kaně occurs changes its function. The audio-recorded data for this study consisted of 11 selected fragments out the total 17 fragments with a total running time of 74 minutes and 37 seconds. Using Conversational Analysis (CA) methodology, analysis of the interactional data indicated that kaně serves the following three functions: (1) it is used when attached to the end of declarative statements; as a tag question or tag-like turn-final question for confirmation, (2) when attached at the end of imperative statements to make some request, it serves as a word for expressing emphasis, and (3) when kaně occurs at the end of an utterance which is produced with louder pitch than other words in the surrounding environment and the final vowel of kaně at the end of the utterance is elongated, it expresses strong insistence.


Keywords: CA, Interactive functions, kaně, Pashto, ordinary conversation, interactional devices, TCU

References

Brown, P. (2010). Questions and their responses in Tzeltal. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2627– 2648.
Bukhari, Z. (n.d). Interactive functions ‘na’ in Urdu conversation. Retrieved from http://www.academia.edu
Englert, C. (2010). Questions and responses in Dutch conversations. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2666–2684.
Ford, C. E., & Thompson, S. A. (1996). Interactional units in conversation: syntactic, intonational, and pragmatic resources for the management of turns. In E. Ochs, E. A. Schegloff, & S. A. Thompson (Eds.,), Interaction and grammar (pp.134- 184). Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Goodwin, C. (1981). Conversational Organization: Interaction between hearers and speakers. Academic Press: New York. Retrieved form http://www.researchgate.net/publication/238751771_Conversational_organizat ion_interaction_between_speakers_and_hearers
Hayashi, M. (2010). An overview of the question-response system in Japanese. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2685–2702.
Heinemann, T. (2010). Question-response system of Danish. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2703– 2725.
McGregor, R. S. (1992). Urdu study materials: For use with outline of Hindi grammar. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Moore, E., & Poodesva, R. (2009). Style, indexicality, and the social meaning of tag questions. Language in Society, 38(04), 447-485.
Sacks, H., Schegloff, E. A. & Jefferson, G. (1974). A simplest systematics for the organization of turn-taking for conversation. Language, 50(4), 696-735.
Schegloff, E. A. (1996). Issues of relevance for discourse analysis: Contingency in action, interaction and co-participant context. In E. H. Hovy & D. R. Scott (Eds.,), computational and conversational discourse: burning issues—an interdisciplinary account (pp.3-35). New York: Springer.
Schegloff, E. A., Koshik, I., Jacoby, S. & Olsher, D. (2002). Conversation analysis and applied linguistics. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 22, 3–31
Seedhouse, P. (2005). Conversation analysis and language learning. Language Teaching, 38(4), 165-187.
Shigemitsu, Y. (2014). Offering opinions in tag-like questions in authentic conversation in English and Japanese. Retrieved from https://www.t-kougei.ac.jp/research/pdf/vol37- 2-04.pdf pp.32-40.
Sohail, A. (2011). Repetition: A method for affiliation and agreement in Urdu conversation. UK: LAP Lambert Academic Publishing AG & CO KG.
Stivers, T. (2010). An overview of the question-response system in American English. Journal of Pragmatics, 42, 2772–2781.
Published
2022-03-30
How to Cite
MUHAMMAD, Sultan; KHATOON, Salma; SOHAIL, Ayesha. Interactive Functions of Kaně (کنه) in Ordinary Pashto Conversation. University of Chitral Journal of Linguistics & Literature, [S.l.], v. 6, n. I, p. 286-296, mar. 2022. ISSN 2663-1512. Available at: <https://jll.uoch.edu.pk/index.php/journal10/article/view/433>. Date accessed: 26 nov. 2022.