Interactive Functions of Kaně (کنه) in Ordinary Pashto Conversation

  • Sultan Muhammad Assistant Professor, Department of English, Hazara University, Mansehra
  • Salma Khatoon, Dr. Lecturer, Department of English, Kohat University of Science & Technology, Kohat
  • Ayesha Sohail, Dr. Professor, Department of English, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzzafarabad


In recent years, there has been a considerable interest in the analysis of various linguistic and interactional devices that speakers use during ordinary conversation. Few studies have explored interactional devices used during ordinary conversation by speakers of Urdu and other local languages in Pakistan, except Pashto. This paper presents the results of the study that explored different interactive functions of kaně (کنه) in ordinary Pashto conversation. It shows that kaně has different functions and meanings in different contexts. It argues that it is not the position of kaně in the Turn-Constructional Unit (TCU) that contributes to its different functions but the kind of sequential environment or the specific context in which kaně occurs changes its function. The audio-recorded data for this study consisted of 11 selected fragments out the total 17 fragments with a total running time of 74 minutes and 37 seconds. Using Conversational Analysis (CA) methodology, analysis of the interactional data indicated that kaně serves the following three functions: (1) it is used when attached to the end of declarative statements; as a tag question or tag-like turn-final question for confirmation, (2) when attached at the end of imperative statements to make some request, it serves as a word for expressing emphasis, and (3) when kaně occurs at the end of an utterance which is produced with louder pitch than other words in the surrounding environment and the final vowel of kaně at the end of the utterance is elongated, it expresses strong insistence.

Keywords: CA, Interactive functions, kaně, Pashto, ordinary conversation, interactional devices, TCU


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How to Cite
MUHAMMAD, Sultan; KHATOON, Salma; SOHAIL, Ayesha. Interactive Functions of Kaně (کنه) in Ordinary Pashto Conversation. University of Chitral Journal of Linguistics & Literature, [S.l.], v. 6, n. I, p. 286-296, mar. 2022. ISSN 2663-1512. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 sep. 2023.