Intercultural Communication and Positioning of Maxims: An Analysis of ‘The Terminal’

  • Durdana Rafique Assistant Professor of English, Department of English, University of Turbat
  • Nighat Shakur, Dr. Assistant Professor of English, International Islamic University Islamabad
  • Saba Zaidi, Dr. Assistant Professor of English, Sardar Bahadur KhanWomen’s University Quetta

Abstract

Language is crucial in comprehending people's lives. Intercultural pragmatics focuses on communication. According to Kecskes (2000), intercultural communication involves persons from diverse cultural origins speaking different languages. They interact via a shared language. In intercultural communication, when individuals from various cultures speak different languages, it is challenging to understand one another. The study aimed to investigate how the main characters from the movie construct the current sense of emergent common ground from the perspective of the socio-cognitive approach. For the purpose of generating successful communication, (Grice, 1975), proposed four maxims that must not be ignored. The findings of the study indicated that in intercultural interaction between the two selected characters Frank and Viktor, Frank co-constructs a common ground because both of them come from different cultural backgrounds. He formulated the utterances in such a way that Viktor was able to comprehend the information with relative ease. The study also showed that Grice maxims, which include maxims of manner, maxims of quality, maxims of quality, and maxims of relevance, were both followed and sometimes ignored during an intercultural interaction between Frank and Viktor, i.e., maxims were positioned in a specific context.


Keywords: intercultural communication, common ground, current sense, shared sense

References

Amaliyasari, M. R., & Widiyanah, I. (2019). flouting maxim and hedging maxim in
multicultural students interaction. Journey: Journal of English Language and
Pedagogy, 2(2), 105- 112.
Ayasreh, A., & Razali, R. (2018). The flouting of Grice's conversational maxim: examples from bashar al-assad's interview during the arab spring. IOSR Journal Of Humanities And Social Science (IOSR-JHSS), 23(5), 43–47.
Aziz, Z. A., Mustafa, F., & A'la, P. N. (2019). Flouting maxims as a sense of humor in Indonesian Speech Acts. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 4(2), 169–180.
Cohen, A. D. (2012). Research methods for describing variation in intercultural pragmatics for cultures in contact and conflict. Pragmatic variation in first and second language contexts: Methodological issues, 271-294.
Cutting, J. (2002). Pragmatics and Discourse: A Resource Book for Students. New York: Routledge.
Cutting, J. (2008). Pragmatics and discourse: A resource book for students. New York: Routledge.
Ekah, M. H., & Akpan, A. N. (2018). Discourse-Syntax interface: A study of Gricean Maxims in computer-mediated discourse. Language in India, 18(2), 187–203.
García-Gómez, A. (2020). Intercultural and interpersonal communication failures: analyzing hostile interactions among British and Spanish university students on WhatsApp .Intercultural Pragmatics, 17(1), 27-51. https://doi.org/10.1515/ip-2020-0002
Gumperz, J. J. (1982). Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Cutting, J. (2008). Pragmatics and discourse: A resource book for students. New York: Routledge.
Hicks, T, A. (2006). Uncle Sam. Marshall Cavendish. p. 9.
Hlavac, J., Xu, Z., & Yong, D. X. (2015). Intercultural pragmatics at work:(Self-) perceptions of intercultural behavior of Chinese and English speakers and interpreters in healthcare interactions.
Ibrahim, Z., Arifin, M. B., & Setyowati, R. (2018). The flouting of maxim in the se7en movie script. Ilmu Budaya: Jurnal Bahasa, Sastra, Seni dan Budaya, 2(1), 81-94.
Jacobs, L. R., & Shapiro, R. Y. (2000). Politicians don't pander: Political manipulation and the loss of democratic responsiveness. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Kecskes, I., & Zhang, F. (2009). Activating, seeking, and creating common ground: A
sociocognitive approach. Pragmatics & Cognition, 17(2), 331-355.
Khosravizadeh, P., & Sadehvandi, N. (2012). Some instances of violation and flouting of the maxim of quantity by the main characters (barry & tim) in dinner for schmucks. International Conference on Languages, Literature and Linguistics, 26, 122–127.
Kurniati, M., & Hanidar, S. (2018). The Flouting of the Gricean Maxims in the Movies Insidious and Insidious 2. Lexicon, 5(1), 65-76.
Leech, G. N. (1983). Principle of Pragmatics. London: Longman.
Lestari, N. G. (2019). An analysis of flouting maxims in conversation speaking of the main character in the movie of Home Alone 2 "Lost In New York" By John Hughes. Journal of English Pedagogy, Linguistics, Literature, and Teaching, 7(1), 1–11.
Levinson, S. C. (1983). Pragmatics. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Moeschler. J. (2004). Intercultural pragmatics: a cognitive approach. , 1(1), 49-70. https://doi.org/10.1515/iprg.2004.007
Patton, M. Q. (2002). Qualitative evaluation and research methods (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage Publications, Inc Sembiring, E., & Ghozali, I. (2017). An analysis of maxims flouting in "the jungle book" movie script. Journal of English Language and Language Teaching JELLT, 1(2), 33– 39.
Stenbacka, C. (2001). Qualitative research requires quality concepts of its own. Management Decision, 39(7), 551-555
Thomas, J. (1995). Meaning in interaction: An introduction to Pragmatics. London: Longman.
Tupan, A. H., & Natalia, H. (2008). The multiple violations of conventional maxims in lying done by the characters in some episodes of Desperate Housewives. K@ta Journal, 10(1), 3–78.
Yule, G. (1996). Pragmatics. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
Vergis, N. (2017). The interaction of the maxim of quality and face concerns: An experimental approach using the vignette technique. Journal of Pragmatics, 118, 38–50.
Wahyuni, M., Arifin, M. B., & Lubis, I. S. (2019). An analysis of flouting of maxims done by main characters in La La Land Movie. Jurnal Ilmu Budaya, 3(3), 384– 392.
Published
2022-03-30
How to Cite
RAFIQUE, Durdana; SHAKUR, Nighat; ZAIDI, Saba. Intercultural Communication and Positioning of Maxims: An Analysis of ‘The Terminal’. University of Chitral Journal of Linguistics & Literature, [S.l.], v. 6, n. I, p. 297-311, mar. 2022. ISSN 2663-1512. Available at: <https://jll.uoch.edu.pk/index.php/journal10/article/view/434>. Date accessed: 26 nov. 2022.