Code-switching in Language Classrooms: A Comparative Study of University Teachers’ Beliefs

  • Shaista Shehzadi Lecturer, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Pakistan
  • Arshad Ali, Dr. Associate Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Pakistan
  • Ayyaz Mehmood Assistant Professor, Department of English, National University of Modern Languages, Pakistan


The subject of first language (L1) usage or code-switching in relation to L2 (second language) education and learning has been a source of contention in the field of second language acquisition for decades. The assumption that first language (L1) must be used for second language (L2) education and learning has thus been supported by a number of studies, while some other works have provided evidence of the drawbacks of that L1 implementation. As of now, it is widely acknowledged that the idea of "belief" is a key factor influencing second language (L2) education and understanding. The current investigation compares the beliefs of various university teachers and instructors about the use of L1 in language classrooms in two different universities of two main cities, namely The University of Lahore and the National University of Modern Language in Lahore and Multan, respectively. In this research, it has been examined whether or not Multan and Lahore EFL lecturers have similar or divergent views on the use of L1 in their language courses. A questionnaire based on teachers' beliefs was used to collect the data. Twenty EFL teachers from both settings were involved in the study. The research found that the opinions of two EFL teachers regarding the use of L1 for their approach to their subject of classroom management and CS for interpersonal connections were significantly different from one another.

Keywords: First language, Second language, Code-switching, Language Education, EFL


Adnan, M. A. M., Mohamad, S., Yusoff, M. A., & Ghazali, Z. (2014). Teachers' attitudes towards the use of the first language in Arabic classroom. International Refereed Research Journal, 5(2), 20-28.
Afzal, S. (2013). Using the first language in an English classroom as a way of scaffolding for both the students and teachers to learn and teach English. International Research Journal of Applied and Basic Sciences, 4(7), 1846-1854.
Al, H. (2010). The attitudes of teachers and students towards using Arabic in EFL classrooms in Saudi public schools-a case study. Novitas-Royal, 4(1).
Amin, M. M., & Saadatmanesh, S. (2018). Discovering the effectiveness of direct versus indirect corrective feedback on EFL learners’ writings: A case of an Iranian context. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies.
Amin, M. Y. M. (2017). Communication strategies and gender differences; A case study. International Journal of Humanities and Cultural Studies (IJHCS) ISSN 2356-5926, 4(3), 226-238.
Amin, M. Y. M. (2017). English language teaching methods and reforms in English curriculum in Iraq; an overview. Journal of the University of Human Development, 3(3), 578-583.
Amin, M. Y. M. (2018). The effectiveness of “Training course for English teachers in Iraqi Kurdistan” and improving teachers’ confidence. INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL, 5(1).
Amin, M. Y. M., & Mohammadkarimi, E. (2019). ELT students' attitudes toward the effectiveness of the anti-plagiarism software, Turnitin. Applied Linguistics Research Journal, 3(5), 63-75.
Druce, P. M. (2015). Attitudes to the Use of L1 and Translation in Second language Teaching and Learning (Part 2). Journal of Second Language Teaching & Research, 4(1), 154-175.
Elmetwally, E. E. (2012). Students’ and teachers’ attitudes toward the use of learners’ mother tongue in English language classrooms in UAE public high schools (Doctoral dissertation, The British University in Dubai (BUiD)).
Halliwell, S., & Jones, B. (1991). On Target: Teaching in the Target Language. Pathfinder 5. A CILT Series for Language Teachers.
Howatt, A. P. R. with HG Widdowson (2004) A history of English language teaching.
Khoshnaw, S. I. H. (2014). An Investigation into the Use of L1 in EFL Classes in the Kurdistan Region of Iraq (Master's thesis, Eastern Mediterranean University (EMU)-Doğu Akdeniz Üniversitesi (DAÜ)).
Krashen, S. (1981). Second language acquisition. Second Language Learning, 3(7), 19-39.
Mahadeo, S. K. (2013). The L1 in L2 Learning: Mauritian Teachers' Beliefs and Attitudes. In The European Conference on Language Learning, University of Mauritian, Mauritian.
How to Cite
SHEHZADI, Shaista; ALI, Arshad; MEHMOOD, Ayyaz. Code-switching in Language Classrooms: A Comparative Study of University Teachers’ Beliefs. University of Chitral Journal of Linguistics & Literature, [S.l.], v. 6, n. I, p. 407-414, june 2022. ISSN 2663-1512. Available at: <>. Date accessed: 27 jan. 2023.