Knowing, Learning, and Experiencing: Problems of ELT during Online Classes in Pakistan

Authors

DOI:

https://doi.org/10.33195/

Keywords:

pandemic, online classes, ICT skills, higher education, Karachi-Pakistan

Abstract

The Global Pandemic introduced new challenges in pedagogy, methodology, and curriculum. However, it offered some novel solutions for academia to rapidly shift from traditional teacher-centered classrooms to student-oriented interactive classrooms using online tools. Hence, this study aims to identify the technical, institutional, and academic problems English language teachers face during online classes for undergraduate students at a public sector university in Karachi, Pakistan. For this purpose, the study utilized a mixed-method approach, and the target population included sixteen teachers teaching virtually. Data was collected in two stages using purposive sampling through an online teaching form from all the respondents, and to know teachers' experiences while conducting the classes, interviews were conducted. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with five participants. The findings suggest that teachers face problems with ICT skills, digital resources, content development, assessment, and using different online platforms for tasks and activities. The results indicate that teachers also met multiple economic, technological, interaction, attention, motivational, and well-being issues of learners during the online classes. Comparatively, some young teachers reflected the opposite trends and were motivated to explore this new education system. Therefore, the higher education institutes in Pakistan should immediately develop new curricula in alignment with the technological needs. Also, sufficient training for ELT practitioners and teaching language skills must be provided for the betterment of future generations.

References

Abbas, A., Haruna, H., Arrona-Palacios, A., Camacho-Zuñiga, C., Núñez-Daruich, S., Enríquez de la O, J. F., & Hosseini, S. (2021a). Students’ evaluations of teachers and recommendation based on course structure or teaching approaches: An empirical study based on the institutional dataset of student opinion survey. Education and Information Technologies, 27(9), 12049-12064.

Abbas, A., Hosseini, S., Núñez, J. L. M., and Sastre-Merino, S. (2021b). Emerging technologies in the education for innovative pedagogies and competency development. Australas. J. Educ. Technol. 37, 1–5. https://ajet.org.au/index.php/AJET/article/view/7680

Acosta-Tello, E. (2015). Enhancing the Online Class: Effective Use of Synchronous Interactive Online Instruction. Journal of Instructional Pedagogies, 17.

Adnan, M., & Anwar, K. (2020). Online Learning amid the COVID-19 Pandemic: Students' Perspectives. Online Submission, 2(1), 45-51.

Ali, M. K., & Maksum, H. (2020). Utilization of E-Learning-Based ICT Learning Using the Google Classroom Application During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Journal of Education Research and Evaluation, 4(4), 373. https://doi.org/10.23887/jere.v4i4.29181

Almaiah, M. A., Al-Khasawneh, A., & Althunibat, A. (2020). Exploring the critical challenges and factors influencing the E-learning system usage during COVID-19 pandemic. Education and Information Technologies, 25(6), 5261–5280. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10639-020-10219-y

Altakhaineh, A. R. M., Alhendi, H., & Dweikat, F. F. I. (2021). Challenges facing teachers and students in English oral skills online classes. The International Journal of Technologies in Learning, 28(2), 21.

Aung, T. N., & Khaing, S. S. (2015). Challenges of implementing e-learning in developing countries: A review. In Genetic and Evolutionary Computing: Proceedings of the Ninth International Conference on Genetic and Evolutionary Computing, August 26-28, 2015, Yangon, Myanmar-Volume II 9 (pp. 405-411). Springer International Publishing.

Awal, R. (2023). Measuring the effectiveness of online classes during the COVID-19 pandemic: Case study of a government college in Bangladesh. Journal of Management and Business Education, 6(1), 43-57.

Basilaia, G., and Kvavadze, D. (2020). Transition to online education in schools during a SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic in Georgia. Pedagogical Res. 5, 1–9.

Chang, T. Y., Hong, G., Paganelli, C., Phantumvanit, P., Chang, W. J., Shieh, Y. S., & Hsu, M. L. (2020). Innovation of dental education during COVID-19 pandemic. Journal of Dental Sciences, 155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jds.2020.07.011

Chapelle, C. A. (2001). Computer applications in second language acquisition. Cambridge University Press.

Chen, B., DeNoyelles, A., Patton, K., & Zydney, J. (2017). Creating a community of inquiry in large-enrollment online courses: An exploratory study on the effect of protocols within online discussions. Online Learning, 21(1), 165-188.

Chen, C.-H., & Tsai, C.-C. (2021). In-service teachers’ conceptions of mobile technology-integrated instruction: Tendency towards student-centered learning. Computers & Education, 170(1). https://doi.org/10.1016/j.compedu.2021.104224

Chen, T., Peng, L., Jing, B., Wu, C., Yang, J., and Cong, G. (2020). The Impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on user experience with online education platforms in China. Sustainability 12:7329. doi: https://www.mdpi.com/2071-1050/12/18/7329

Creswell, J. W. (2020). Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research. Pearson Higher Ed.

Cucinotta, D., & Vanelli, M. (2020). WHO declares COVID-19 a pandemic? Acta bio medica: Atenei parmensis, 91(1), 157.

Dobre, I. (2007). Evaluation of students knowledge-an experiment in e-learning. Seria Matematica—Informatica—Fizica, 59(2), 43-48.

Dumford, A. D., & Miller, A. L. (2018). Online learning in higher education: exploring advantages and disadvantages for engagement. Journal of computing in higher education, 30, 452-465.

Eachempati, P., &Ramnarayan, K. (2020). Ten maxims for out of class learning to outclass the academic challenges of COVID-19. MedEd Publish, 9.

Ferretti, T. R., McRae, K., &Hatherell, A. (2001). Integrating verbs, situation schemas, and thematic role concepts. Journal of Memory and Language, 44(4), 516-547.

Galletta, A. (2012). Mastering the semi-structured interview and beyond: From research design to analysis and publication. New York University Press.

Gonzalez, D., and Louis, R. St (2018). Online Learning, in The TESOL Encyclopedia of English Language Teaching, (1st ed) John Wiley & Sons.

https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/9781118784235.eelt0423

Guo, Z., Xiao, L., Van Toorn, C., Lai, Y., & Seo, C. (2016). Promoting online learners’ continuance intention: An integrated flow framework. Information & Management, 53(2), 279-295.

Hazwani Mohd N., Noor Raudhiah Abu B. and Norziah O. (2020). E-Pembelajaran Dalam Kalangan Pelajar Di Sebuah Institusi Pengajian Tinggi Selangor. Selangor. Malaysian atas talian. Journal of Education.

Huang, S. H. (2017). Communicative Language Teaching: Practical Difficulties in the Rural EFL Classrooms in Taiwan. Journal of Education and Practice, 7(24), 186- 202.

Ilonga, A., Ashipala, D. O., & Tomas, N. (2020). Challenges Experienced by Students Studying through Open and Distance Learning at a Higher Education Institution in Namibia: Implications for Strategic Planning. International Journal of Higher Education, 9(4), 116-127.

Joo, Y. J., So, H. J., & Kim, N. H. (2018). Examination of relationships among students' self-determination, technology acceptance, satisfaction, and continuance intention to use K-MOOCs. Computers & Education, 122, 260-272.

Josselson, R. (2013). Interviewing for qualitative inquiry: A relational approach. Guilford Press.

Kanwal, F., & Rehman, M. (2017). Factors affecting e-learning adoption in developing countries–empirical evidence from Pakistan’s higher education sector. Ieee Access, 5, 10968-10978.

Kkese, E. (2020). McGurk effect and audiovisual speech perception in students with learning disabilities exposed to online teaching during the COVID-19 pandemic. Medical Hypotheses, 144(July), 110233. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mehy.2020.110233.

Kim, J. (2020). Learning and teaching online during COVID-19: experiences of student teachers in an early childhood education practicum. Int. J. Early Child. 52, 145–158. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s13158-020-00272-6

Knox, J. (2016). Posthumanism and the MOOC: opening the subject of digital education. Studies in Philosophy and Education, 35, 305-320.

Littlefield, M. B., Rubinstein, K., & Laveist, C. B. (2020). Designing for quality: Distance education rubrics for online MSW programs. In Online and Distance Social Work Education (pp. 257-272). Routledge.

Mailizar, M., Almanthari, A., Maulina, S., & Bruce, S. (2020). Secondary School Mathematics Teachers’ Views on E-learning Implementation Barriers during the COVID-19 Pandemic: The Case of Indonesia. Eurasia Journal of Mathematics, Science and Technology Education, 16(7), em1860. https://doi.org/10.29333/ejmste/8240

Mamluah, S. K., & Maulidi, A. (2021). Pembelajaran Jarak Jauh (PJJ) di Masa Pandemi COVID-19 di Sekolah Dasar. Jurnal Basicedu, 5(2). https://doi.org/10.31004/basicedu.v5i2.800

Mathew, I. R., & Iloanya, J. (2016). Open and distance learning: benefits and challenges of technology usage for online teaching and learning in Africa. Common wealth of Learning, Learning for Sustainable Development.

McCormick, R., & Scrimshaw, P. (2001). Information and communications technology, knowledge and pedagogy. Education, Communication & Information, 1(1), 37-57.

Mohammadi, H. (2015). Investigating users’ perspectives on e-learning: An integration of TAM and IS success model. Computers in human behavior, 45, 359-374.

Nobre, A. (2021). Open Educational Practices and Resources in the Higher Education Learning Environment. In Advancing Online Course Design and Pedagogy for the 21st Century Learning Environment (pp. 93-111). IGI Global.

Nova, M. (2017). Utilizing video for technology integration support in Indonesian EFL classroom: Usages and obstacles. Indonesian Journal of EFL and Linguistics, 2(1), 15-28.

Pakistan Ministry of Education and Professional Training. (2020). https://www.mofept.gov.pk/

Perrotta, K. A., & Bohan, C. H. (2020). A reflective study of online faculty teaching experiences in higher education. Journal of Effective Teaching in Higher Education, 3(1), 50-66

Rubin, H. J. & Rubin, I. S. (2005). Qualitative interviewing: The art of hearing the data. SAGE Publications, Inc.

Russell, V., & Murphy-Judy, K. (2020). Teaching language online: A guide for designing, developing, and delivering online, Blended, and flipped language courses. Routledge.

Saldaña, J. (2016). The coding manual for qualitative researchers (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.

Sahito, Z., & Vaisanen, P. (2017). Effect of ICT Skills on the Job Satisfaction of Teacher Educators: Evidence from the Universities of the Sindh Province of Pakistan. International journal of higher education, 6(4), 122-136.

Savin-Baden, Maggi., & Major, Calire (2013). Qualitative Research: The essential guide to theory and practice. Routledge.

Sepulveda-Escobar, P., & Morrison, A. (2020). Online teaching placement during the COVID-19 pandemic in Chile: challenges and opportunities. European Journal of Teacher Education, 43(4), 587-607

ŞEVİK, M., & YUCEDAG, Z. (2021). An evaluation of distance education during the Coronavirus 19 pandemic: the views of Turkish EFL teachers. Mehmet Akif Ersoy Üniversitesi Eğitim Bilimleri Enstitüsü Dergisi, 9(11), 171-190.

Shaikh, T., Memon, M., & Ansari, S. (2021). Keeping the Doors of Learning Open: Exploring Innovative English Language Teaching Practices during COVID-19 Pandemic. International Research Journal of Arts & Humanities (IRJAH), 49(49).

Stake, R. E. (2006). Multiple case study analysis. The Guilford Press.

Syamsuardi, S., Herlina, H., & Irfan, M. (2021). The Effectiveness of Children’s Learning Time in Online Learning System During the Covid 19 Pandemic in Kindergartens. Journal of Educational Science and Technology, 7(2), 148-154.

UNESCO Report on UNESCO COVID-19 Education Response. (April, 2020). https://reliefweb.int/report/world/unesco-covid-19-education-response-education-sector-issue-notes-issue-note-n-81-april?gad_source=1&gclid=CjwKCAiA8NKtBhBtEiwAq5aX2GdIV-IeHjskALeMWNnw2ILXIC_yh9jfinYtotf-ZWtyApi3zPot2BoCBU0QAvD_BwE

Wang, Y., Cao, Y., Gong, S., Wang, Z., Li, N., & Ai, L. (2022). Interaction and learning engagement in online learning: The mediating roles of online learning self-efficacy and academic emotions. Learning and Individual Differences, 94, 102128.

Wargadinata, W., Maimunah, I., Eva, D., & Rofiq, Z. (2020). Student’s responses on learning in the early COVID-19 pandemic. Tadris: Journal of Education and Teacher Training, 5(1), 141-153.

Yang, F., & Li, F. W. (2018). Study on student performance estimation, student progress analysis, and student potential prediction based on data mining. Computers & Education, 123, 97-108.

Yen, T. F. T. (2020). The performance of online teaching for flipped classroom based on COVID-19 aspect. Asian Journal of Education and Social Studies, 8(3), 57-64.

Yin, R. K. (2018). Case study research: Design and methods (6th ed.). Sage

Downloads

Published

02/05/2024

How to Cite

Tania Shabir Shaikh, & Muhammad Hassan Abbasi. (2024). Knowing, Learning, and Experiencing: Problems of ELT during Online Classes in Pakistan. University of Chitral Journal of Linguistics and Literature, 8(I), 1-16. https://doi.org/10.33195/

Similar Articles

1-10 of 69

You may also start an advanced similarity search for this article.