NATIVISATION AND VARIATION OF DISCOURSE MARKERS IN PAKISTANI ENGLISH
Keywords:Pakistani English; Non-native variety; Nativisation; Variation; Discourse Markers (DMs); Fraser Taxonomy
This study aims at analyzing nativisation, variation and categorization of Discourse markers in Pakistani English by the application of Fraser (1999) taxonomy of discourse markers. The data is drawn and analysed manually. Two corpora: BNC and PENC are used for identifying nativisation and variation. First 100 occurrences of BNC are taken into consideration for the study of functions and positions of discourse makers. Data is shown in tables and is further discussed in detail. There are twelve nativised DMs and ten variant DMs found whereas, variation in position of six DMs is analysed. The study supports the notion of negotiating the context-based meaning through DMs and reinforces the multiplicity of functioning of DMs presented by Schiffrin (1987) and Müller (2005). It responses to the claim of transparent DM made by Ariel (1994) and illustrates its multiple functions. Furthermore, it posits a contrast to the study of Lahuerta (2004) that places of course into inferential category of DMs by highlighting its dual functionality in PE performing the functions of elaborative and inferential DM. Moreover, it adds the analysis of combination of inferential and elaborative DMs ignored by Fraser (2015). This pioneering work studies DMs in written discourse (Pakistani English novels) and offers a foundational ground to the research of non-native varieties of English.
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